1. The first fullerene was identified to contain 60 carbon atoms in the shape of a football. (C-60).
Since this looks like the geodesic dome designed by the US architect Buck Minster Fuller, it is named as Buck Minster Fullerene of molecules through self linking property. This property is called catenation
2. Carbon combines with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, chlorineand many other elements to form various stable compounds.
The electronic configuration of carbon is K=2, L=4. It has four electrons in the valence shell and belongs to group IV A (group 14) of the periodic table.
Carbon is a non metal. In nature, it occurs in its pure form as diamond and graphite. When fuels burn, the carbon in them reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.
Since it has four electrons in its outermost shell, its valency is four. To achieve noble gas configuration, carbon atom has to lose or gain four electrons to form C 4+ and C 4- ions.
C + O2 → CO2 + heat + light
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + heat + light
C2H5OH + 2O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O + heat + light
2. Carbon compounds can be easily oxidized using suitable oxidizing agent ( Alkaline potassium ermanganate) to form carboxylic acids.
3. Unsaturated carbon compounds undergo addition reactions with hydrogen in the presence of palladium or nickel catalyst. e.g.,
5. Carbon compounds such as alcohols react with sodium to liberate hydrogen gas.
e.g: 2CH3CH2OH + 2Na→2CH3CH2ONa + H2
2. All members of homologous series contain same elements and the same functional groups.
3. All members of homologous series have same general molecular formula.
e.g Alkane = CnH 2n + 2
5. The chemical properties of the members of the homologous series are similar.
6. All members of homologous series can be prepared by using same general method.
Importance of homologous series
2. Knowledge of homologous series gives a systematic study of the members.
3. The nature of any member of the family can be ascertained if the properties of the first member are known
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