Saturday, July 26, 2014

IX Chapter: Improvement in food resources Notes for Quick study

Contents :
Learning Objectives
1. Animal husbandry – management of animal livestock, its need.
2. Cattle farming – milch animals, draught animals, Exotic breeds.
3. Animal husbandry (continued)
4. Poultry farming – improves and enhances egg production and chicken meat.
5. Fish production – It is cheap source of protein
(i) Marine fisheries (ii) Inland fisheries
6. Bee keeping – source of honey and wax

The students will understand:
1. Need for the management of livestock.
2. Need and ways of improving production of poultry, fish and honey.
Key Term
Breed, livestock, Poultry, fisheries, pasturage.

KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept] CONCEPTS
Improvement in crop yield
Crop variety improvement
Crop production management
Crop protection management
Animal Husbandry

1. Food Resources: Cereals (Wheat, rice, maize, millets and sorghum) provide us carbohydrates; Pulses (Grams, pea and lentil) provide us proteins; Oil seeds (Soya bean, ground nut, sesame, and castor) provide us fats; Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us a range of minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins. In addition to these food crops, fodder crops like berseem, oats or sudan grass are raised as food for the livestock are called as fodder crops.

2. The Kharif crops: The crops grown in rainy season are called as Kharif crops (Paddy, Soya bean, pigeon pea and maize). They are grown from June to October.

3. The Rabi crops: The crops grown in winter season are called Rabi crops (Wheat, gram, peas, and mustard). They are grown November to April.

Compare Kharif crops and Rabi crops:

Kharif crops
June to October ( Rainy Season)
Paddy, Soya bean, and maize
Rabi crops
November to April ( winter season)
Wheat, gram, peas, and mustard

4. The Green Revolution: Food supplies are generally as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins in all living organisms. Indian population is growing enormously. Green Revolution is the need of the hour to increase food-grain production.

5. Sustainable Practices: For sustained livelihood, one should undertake mixed farming, intercropping, and integrated farming practices, for example, combining agriculture with livestock/ poultry/ fisheries/bee-keeping. The major group of activities for improving crop yield can be classified as: Crop varietal improvement, Crop production improvement, Crop protection improvement

6. The Crop varietal improvement:
a) Hybridization: It refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants;It is all to get higher yield, improved quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, change in maturity duration, wider adaptability and desirable agronomic characteristics.

Intervarietal Hybridization
between different varieties
Interspecific Hybridization
between different species
Intergeneric Hybridization
between different genera
Genetically Modified Crops (GMC).
Another way of improving the crop is by introducing a gene that would provide the desired characteristic.

7. The Crop production improvement: They include” no cost production”,” low cost production” or “high cost production” practices.

a) Nutrients ( Sixteen elements are required for growth are called as essential elements Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen+ Macronutrients & Micronutrients. They increase the yield):

Six elements are required in larger quantity
Other seven elements are required in small quantity
Ex.Nitrogen, phosphorus, calsium,Postasium, magnisium, sulphur
Ex. Iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chlorine

b)Manure & Fertilizers:
Manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste is called as Humus. It decides the texture of the soil.
Compost: Farm waste, cow dung etc.
Vermi compost: Compost prepared by using earthworms.
Fertilizers are commercially produced plant nutrients.
Excess fertilizers destroy the soil fertility.
Organic farming: No use of chemicals fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides etc.( Culturing blue green algae, neem leaves, healthy cropping systems.
It is cheap and prepared in rural homes and fields
It is costly and is prepared in factories
It is voluminous and bulky
It is compact and concentrated
It is inconvenient to store, transport, handle.
It is easy to store, transport, handle.
It is not nutrient specific.
It is nuteient specific and can provide specifically nitrogen, phosphorus etc.
6. Add great humus to the soil
7. Does not add humus to the soil.

3. Irrigation: India has variety of water resources: Wells, canals, river lift system, tanks, rainwater harvesting, water shedding management to increase in ground water levels and to check the water flowing away to the sea. Planning to reduce soil erosion.

4. Cropping patterns:

Mixed cropping
Crop rotation
Two or more crops grown simultaneously on the same piece of land
Two or more crops grown simultaneously on the same piece of land in a definite pattern
Growing different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession
Ex. Wheat+ Gram; Wheat+ Mustard; Wheat+ gram; Groundnut+ sunflower.
Soyabean + maize/bajra+Cowpea ((Please refer Fig. 15.2, NCERT Text Book Page- 208).
Two or three crops can be grown in a year depending upon the duration.

A type of insurance against failure of one of the crops.
A few rows of one crop alternate with a few rows of a second crop. Crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different. This ensures the maximum utilization of the nutrients supplied and prevents pests and diseases spreading in the crop field.
The availability of moisture and irrigation facilities decides the choice of the crop to be cultivated.
8. Crop protection improvement/ management: Field crops are infested by large number of weeds, insects pests, diseases & storage of grains

Cattle farming
Poultry farming
Fish farming
Bee Keeping.
Milk (milch animals) and draught labor (draught animals) in agriculture.
Meat, chicken, egg production
Cheep source of animal protein. Fish production is aquaculture. Growing of marine fishes is called mariculture.
Honey, wax, medicinal preparations.
Additional income to the farmer.
Cross breeding: To get desired qualities
Exotic- quality of lactation
Indigenous breeds- quality of disease resistance
Exotic &
Indigenous breeds
Both Exotic &
Indigenous fishes are used
Exotic- high honey collection capacity &stingless.
Indigenous bees- are used
Desirable maintenance
Good ventilation in sheds
Roughage/ concentrates
Protection from parasites & skin diseases
Good ventilation in sheds
Roughage/ concentrates
Protection from parasites & skin diseases
Fish farming/ locating large schools of fish/ use of satellites and echo-sounds
In Composite fish culture seed is wild, mixed with other species. Hormonal stimulation to bring desired quality in fish production.
Value or quality depends upon the pasturage or the flowers available for the taste of honey.
Exotic or foreign breeds ( Jercy, brown Swiss)
Local breeds (Red sindhi, Sahiwal)
Exotic- Leghorn
Indigenous breeds- Aseel
Fresh water ( Macrobrachium) & Marine( Peneaus) prawns
Fresh water fishes
Marine fishes( Bombay duck, sardines)

IX- Improvement in Food Res Solved Questions
IX- Imp. Food Resources:Revision assignment
IX- Food Resources Quick revision notes by KV

IX- Formative Assessment-II IX Biology - Improvement in Food Resources

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